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LFP or NMC battery?4
SEGL ENERGY CO., LTD. No.76, Wuxun St., Anle Dist., Keelung City 204, Taiwan
GM’s Electric Dream in China Suddenly Looks Underpowered The launch of a new Buick electric vehicle has been put on hold until a new battery supplier can be identifiedA Buick Velite 6 displayed at the Beijing auto show in April. PHOTO: WANG ZHAO/AGENCE FRANCE-PRESSE/GETTY IMAGES By  Trefor Moss Updated Aug. 29, 2018 10:22 a.m. ET SHANGHAI— General Motors Co.’s GM -0.85% plans to ramp up electric-vehicle production in China were set back after the auto maker determined the Chinese-made batteries it intended to use failed to meet its own performance and safety standards during testing. GM was set to enter production next month on its plug-in hybrid Buick Velite 6, a local variant of the Volt, with a pure-electric version due to follow early next year. That launch schedule has now been postponed, with internal tests showing the battery, supplied by A123 Systems, didn’t meet GM’s quality standards, according to a person familiar with the situation. EV batteries are complex components that can’t easily be switched, spelling lengthy delays in getting the Velite 6 into production. A GM spokeswoman declined to comment on the situation, but said the company still intends to launch 10 EVs in China by 2020. However, that target was announced over a year ago, long before the battery supply problem arose. “GM’s plan is to deliver 20 EVs globally by 2023,” the spokeswoman said. “In China, we are on track to introduce 10 new energy vehicles between 2016 and 2020. Given those two goals, all-electric vehicles like the Velite 6 battery electric vehicle are obviously our priority.” A123 Systems didn’t respond to a request seeking comment. The Livonia, Mich.-based company was bought out of bankruptcy by Chinese auto-parts giant Wanxiang Group Corp. in 2013, and it operates a battery plant in the eastern city of Hangzhou to supply the China market. Auto makers operating in China are scrambling to fulfill a Chinese government order requiring them to start building electric vehicles next year. Without a battery, GM is one of those in danger of missing Beijing’s target. China’s timetable is “difficult to achieve” for longtime manufacturers of gasoline cars being forced to make the rapid switch to electric, said Jing Yang, an associate director at Fitch Ratings. “The situation is different company by company,” she said, with some players well set to meet the target, and others floundering. Though seen as an EV market leader in the U.S., where it sells the Chevrolet Bolt and Volt electric cars, GM has had difficulty translating that advantage into success in China, the world’s biggest EV market. GM originally planned to use batteries from South Korea’s LG Chem Ltd. But in 2016, China mandated that auto makers use batteries from a list of approved suppliers, all of which are Chinese. China-owned Volvo Car Group, however, is an exception: It is allowed to use batteries using LG Chem-licensed technology in its locally built cars. Auto makers cite the exclusion of foreign batteries as an example of Chinese government protectionism that handicaps both foreign battery firms and the auto makers they supply, while handing advantages to local rivals. Those complaints are among the factors fueling the U.S. trade actions against China. China’s Ministry of Industry and Information Technology didn’t respond to a request for comment. The Chinese are on course to buy more than 1 million electric vehicles this year—nearly all of them built by local auto makers. Riding the boom are fast-growing Chinese battery suppliers such as BYD Co. and Contemporary Amperex Technology Co. , now among the world’s biggest lithium-ion battery companies. In its rush to develop battery technology, China risks shortcomings in quality and safety performance, said Thomas Barrera, president of LIB-X Consulting, a battery consultancy based in Long Beach, Calif. “There are concerns with the quality of Chinese-manufactured cells and batteries,” he said. “Chinese cells are very attractive because they’re inexpensive, but people may not realize that these cells may not have gone through the necessary qualification testing before going to market.” China’s EV policies have created a dilemma for foreign auto makers: They are obliged to build electric vehicles and use Chinese batteries, but they can’t compromise their global standards and use components in which they lack confidence—especially batteries, which have a history of catching fire. While most foreign auto makers have publicly expressed confidence in their ability to meet the EV quota, few have explained in detail how they will achieve a target requiring electric vehicles to make up roughly 3%-4% of their 2019 output. Some are making tangible progress. On Monday, Nissan Motor Co. started production of its first made-for-China electric car, while Volkswagen AG unveiled its first pure-electric car for China in April. Ford Motor Co. —which began developing electric vehicles later than rivals such as GM—has one plug-in hybrid model on the market in China, and plans to launch its first pure-electric car by the end of 2019. GM launched its first Chinese pure-electric car, the Baojun E100, last year. It has sold more than 22,000 units of the budget EV—which starts at about $6,900—despite only making it available in a handful of locations so far. However, GM, which builds roughly 4 million cars in China a year, would need to build about 100,000 E100s next year to meet the quota, assuming other models fail to come onstream. There is a backstop for auto makers that miss the 2019 target: The regulations allow them to transfer EV credits earned in 2020, and use them to make up any 2019 shortfall. If they are still noncompliant, auto makers will then be forced to buy EV credits from rivals through a credit-trading system, which the authorities have yet to articulate in detail. Auto makers bringing electric vehicles to market early can benefit from generous subsidies, but those are due to end in 2020. “Traditional auto makers will no doubt struggle to remix their portfolio to EVs,” said Bill Russo, the founder of Automobility, a Shanghai consultancy. And without subsidies, the struggle to build enough electric vehicles will soon become a battle to make the costly machines profitable, he said. https://www.seglenergy.com.tw/en/hot_287405.html GM’s Electric Dream in China Suddenly Looks Underpowered The launch of a new Buick electric vehicle has been put on hold until a new battery supplier can be identified 456f5da2b493c45c47107207e011f004.jpg A Buick Velite 6 displayed at the Beijing auto s 2021-03-10 2022-03-10
SEGL ENERGY CO., LTD. No.76, Wuxun St., Anle Dist., Keelung City 204, Taiwan https://www.seglenergy.com.tw/en/hot_287405.html
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Links:https://www.betterworldsolutions.eu/lfp-or-nmc-battery/

Batteries are booming business. In the energy world, the Lithium-Iron Battery (LFP) still has a lot of advantages. Because of its low energy density, this battery is pre-eminently suited for Energy buffers (stationary storage). 

However, we see that NMC batteries are slowly taken the position of the LFP because of their higher energy density and because prices are leveling. 

Lithium Iron Phosphate (LFP)

In 1996, the University of Texas (and other contributors) discovered phosphate as cathode material for rechargeable lithium batteries. Li-phosphate offers good electrochemical performance with low resistance. This is made possible with nano-scale phosphate cathode material. The key benefits are high current rating and long cycle life, besides good thermal stability, enhanced safety and tolerance if abused.

Li-phosphate is more tolerant to full charge conditions and is less stressed than other lithium-ion systems if kept at high voltage for a prolonged time. (See BU-808: How to Prolong Lithium-based Batteries). As a trade-off, the lower voltage of 3.2V/cell reduces the specific energy to less than that of Li-manganese. With most batteries, cold temperature reduces performance and elevated storage temperature shortens the service life, and Li-phosphate is no exception.

Li-phosphate has a higher self-discharge than other Li-ion batteries, which can cause balancing issues with aging. Figure 9 summarizes the attributes of Li-phosphate.

Li-phosphate is often used to replace the lead acid starter battery.

  • Four cells in series produce 12.80V, a similar voltage to six 2V lead acid cells in series.
  • Vehicles charge lead acid to 14.40V (2.40V/cell) and maintain a topping charge.
  • With four Li-phosphate cells in series, each cell tops at 3.60V, which is the correct full-charge voltage.
  • At this point, the charge should be disconnected but the topping charge continues while driving.
  • Li-phosphate is tolerant to some overcharge; however, keeping the voltage at 14.40V for a prolonged time, as most vehicles do on a long drive, could stress Li-phosphate.
  • Cold temperature operation starting could also be an issue with Li-phosphate as a starter battery.

Lithium Nickel Manganese Cobalt Oxide (NMC)

One of the most successful Li-ion systems is a cathode combination of nickel-manganese-cobalt (NMC). Also known as lithium-manganese-cobalt-oxide batteries, or NMC, lithium nickel manganese cobalt oxide batteries are made of several materials common in other lithium iron batteries. These involve a cathode combination of nickel, manganese and cobalt

NMC in the same cell optimized for specific power has a capacity of only about 2,000mWh but delivers a continuous discharge current of 20A.

A silicon-based anode will go to 4,000mAh and higher but at reduced loading capability and shorter cycle life. Silicon added to graphite has the drawback that the anode grows and shrinks with charge and discharge, making the cell mechanically unstable.

Like other varieties of lithium-ion batteries, NMC batteries can have either a high specific energy or high specific power. They cannot, however, have both properties. This battery is most common in power tools and in powertrains for vehicles.

The cathode combination ratio is usually one-third nickel, one-third manganese and one-third cobalt, meaning that the raw material cost is lower than for other options, as cobalt on its own can be quite expensive. According to Battery university, this battery is also commonly preferred for electric vehicles due to its very low self-heating rate.

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