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松下、LG、三星SDL、特斯拉的發展,有何借鑑之處?4
SEGL ENERGY CO., LTD. No.76, Wuxun St., Anle Dist., Keelung City 204, Taiwan
GM’s Electric Dream in China Suddenly Looks Underpowered The launch of a new Buick electric vehicle has been put on hold until a new battery supplier can be identifiedA Buick Velite 6 displayed at the Beijing auto show in April. PHOTO: WANG ZHAO/AGENCE FRANCE-PRESSE/GETTY IMAGES By  Trefor Moss Updated Aug. 29, 2018 10:22 a.m. ET SHANGHAI— General Motors Co.’s GM -0.85% plans to ramp up electric-vehicle production in China were set back after the auto maker determined the Chinese-made batteries it intended to use failed to meet its own performance and safety standards during testing. GM was set to enter production next month on its plug-in hybrid Buick Velite 6, a local variant of the Volt, with a pure-electric version due to follow early next year. That launch schedule has now been postponed, with internal tests showing the battery, supplied by A123 Systems, didn’t meet GM’s quality standards, according to a person familiar with the situation. EV batteries are complex components that can’t easily be switched, spelling lengthy delays in getting the Velite 6 into production. A GM spokeswoman declined to comment on the situation, but said the company still intends to launch 10 EVs in China by 2020. However, that target was announced over a year ago, long before the battery supply problem arose. “GM’s plan is to deliver 20 EVs globally by 2023,” the spokeswoman said. “In China, we are on track to introduce 10 new energy vehicles between 2016 and 2020. Given those two goals, all-electric vehicles like the Velite 6 battery electric vehicle are obviously our priority.” A123 Systems didn’t respond to a request seeking comment. The Livonia, Mich.-based company was bought out of bankruptcy by Chinese auto-parts giant Wanxiang Group Corp. in 2013, and it operates a battery plant in the eastern city of Hangzhou to supply the China market. Auto makers operating in China are scrambling to fulfill a Chinese government order requiring them to start building electric vehicles next year. Without a battery, GM is one of those in danger of missing Beijing’s target. China’s timetable is “difficult to achieve” for longtime manufacturers of gasoline cars being forced to make the rapid switch to electric, said Jing Yang, an associate director at Fitch Ratings. “The situation is different company by company,” she said, with some players well set to meet the target, and others floundering. Though seen as an EV market leader in the U.S., where it sells the Chevrolet Bolt and Volt electric cars, GM has had difficulty translating that advantage into success in China, the world’s biggest EV market. GM originally planned to use batteries from South Korea’s LG Chem Ltd. But in 2016, China mandated that auto makers use batteries from a list of approved suppliers, all of which are Chinese. China-owned Volvo Car Group, however, is an exception: It is allowed to use batteries using LG Chem-licensed technology in its locally built cars. Auto makers cite the exclusion of foreign batteries as an example of Chinese government protectionism that handicaps both foreign battery firms and the auto makers they supply, while handing advantages to local rivals. Those complaints are among the factors fueling the U.S. trade actions against China. China’s Ministry of Industry and Information Technology didn’t respond to a request for comment. The Chinese are on course to buy more than 1 million electric vehicles this year—nearly all of them built by local auto makers. Riding the boom are fast-growing Chinese battery suppliers such as BYD Co. and Contemporary Amperex Technology Co. , now among the world’s biggest lithium-ion battery companies. In its rush to develop battery technology, China risks shortcomings in quality and safety performance, said Thomas Barrera, president of LIB-X Consulting, a battery consultancy based in Long Beach, Calif. “There are concerns with the quality of Chinese-manufactured cells and batteries,” he said. “Chinese cells are very attractive because they’re inexpensive, but people may not realize that these cells may not have gone through the necessary qualification testing before going to market.” China’s EV policies have created a dilemma for foreign auto makers: They are obliged to build electric vehicles and use Chinese batteries, but they can’t compromise their global standards and use components in which they lack confidence—especially batteries, which have a history of catching fire. While most foreign auto makers have publicly expressed confidence in their ability to meet the EV quota, few have explained in detail how they will achieve a target requiring electric vehicles to make up roughly 3%-4% of their 2019 output. Some are making tangible progress. On Monday, Nissan Motor Co. started production of its first made-for-China electric car, while Volkswagen AG unveiled its first pure-electric car for China in April. Ford Motor Co. —which began developing electric vehicles later than rivals such as GM—has one plug-in hybrid model on the market in China, and plans to launch its first pure-electric car by the end of 2019. GM launched its first Chinese pure-electric car, the Baojun E100, last year. It has sold more than 22,000 units of the budget EV—which starts at about $6,900—despite only making it available in a handful of locations so far. However, GM, which builds roughly 4 million cars in China a year, would need to build about 100,000 E100s next year to meet the quota, assuming other models fail to come onstream. There is a backstop for auto makers that miss the 2019 target: The regulations allow them to transfer EV credits earned in 2020, and use them to make up any 2019 shortfall. If they are still noncompliant, auto makers will then be forced to buy EV credits from rivals through a credit-trading system, which the authorities have yet to articulate in detail. Auto makers bringing electric vehicles to market early can benefit from generous subsidies, but those are due to end in 2020. “Traditional auto makers will no doubt struggle to remix their portfolio to EVs,” said Bill Russo, the founder of Automobility, a Shanghai consultancy. And without subsidies, the struggle to build enough electric vehicles will soon become a battle to make the costly machines profitable, he said. https://www.seglenergy.com.tw/en/hot_287405.html GM’s Electric Dream in China Suddenly Looks Underpowered The launch of a new Buick electric vehicle has been put on hold until a new battery supplier can be identified 456f5da2b493c45c47107207e011f004.jpg A Buick Velite 6 displayed at the Beijing auto s 2021-03-10 2022-03-10
SEGL ENERGY CO., LTD. No.76, Wuxun St., Anle Dist., Keelung City 204, Taiwan https://www.seglenergy.com.tw/en/hot_287405.html
SEGL ENERGY CO., LTD. No.76, Wuxun St., Anle Dist., Keelung City 204, Taiwan https://www.seglenergy.com.tw/en/hot_287405.html
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三元材料作為目前性價比最高的動力電池材料,正加速替代磷酸鐵鋰電池。從今年國內7月份電池廠商裝機量來看,三元電池占比已達到74.63%。

 

  三元動力電池仍是大勢所趨

  一方面,消費者對電池續航里程的要求不斷提高,國內磷酸鐵鋰容量技術的發展明顯滯後於市場需求;另一方面,磷酸鐵鋰在國際市場並不是主流,歐美日韓等電池生產企業如松下、LG、三星SDL、特斯拉等都只做三元而不做磷酸鐵鋰。

  在全球化市場背景下,與國際接軌是中國必然的選擇。在國內,也有隻專注於三元電池的企業,如天臣新能源。

  四大利好集中推動三元電池的發展:

  ①政策利好三元動力電池。根據《中國製造2025》對動力電池的明確發展規劃,到2020年動力電池單體能量密度要達到350Wh/kg,2025年提升至400Wh/Kg。按照這個數值,磷酸鐵鋰理論能量密度為170Wh/Kg,在技術上根本無法達到。而三元電池最大優勢就是能量密度高,可以做到300Wh/Kg以上。

②推廣目錄利好三元電池。新能源汽車要想最大限度達到補貼,直接與續航里程,也就是電池能量密度掛鈎。今年前7批次的推廣目錄中,純電動乘用車和客車的能量密度比基本出現主批次提升的趨勢,乘用車和物流車使用三元電池的比例大幅提升。

 

  2017年1-7批新能源車汽車推薦目錄電池占比分析:

1a26a2c1532887e0b2dc18394458dd73.jpg

③市場利好三元電池。目前磷酸鐵鋰主流市場趨於飽和,據起點研究(SPIR)數據顯示,2016年,在客車市場電動大巴已占到近90%的市場份額,反觀三元電池的應用車型,2017年第一季度新能源乘用車占到整體銷量的91.6%。

 

④性能利好三元電池。首先一般三元動力電池的能量密度已達180Wh/kg,今後還有很大的提升空間,這一點是磷酸鐵鋰電池難以企及的;其次三元動力電池的低溫性能優異,在-30℃條件下可保持正常電池容量。

也就是說,目前無論是政策導向,還是企業的產能都已轉向三元系,未來三元技術成為我國動力電池主流技術路線基本確定,國內已與國際主流企業如松下、LG、三星SDL、特斯拉等接軌。

 

  做精做專產業鏈

  接軌之後的發展更值得期待。國際市場上,全方位布局的松下、LG、三星SDL、特斯拉等企業代表著新能源汽車產業鏈的發展方向,他們的一舉一動,都牽動新能源汽車產業鏈的神經。

從國際市場來看,三元鋰電池或將不斷加溫占據市場,但其發展需在確定並走對技術路線之後,PACK、BMS、系統集成、回收、裝備等各方面都需要著手布局,才能進一步的發展壯大。從國內布局來看,寧德時代、比亞迪、天臣新能源、國軒高科等企業,在產業鏈的布局上都具備前瞻意識。

 

  前段時間,天臣新能源出資6億元設立系統總成公司——天臣新能源有限公司,其背後實際上是天臣新能源對新能源產業的宏大布局,首先建設日產達70W支電芯的智能自動化產線,設立研究院,其後又設立系統總成公司,完成了從技術研發、智能自動化生產、PACK、BMS、裝備等一系列的產業鏈布局。

梯次利用 布局儲能

 

  最近,特斯拉與風電機組生產商維斯塔斯進行合作,研究如何將他們的蓄電池與維斯塔斯的風電機組相結合,存儲多餘的風電,從而在風力不足的時候將其釋放。

  事實上,全球各大發電企業都在探索或改進各自的儲能技術。在電池技術改造中,特斯拉取得了不小的進步,美國能源部下屬的一個機構稱他們已經找到了儲能的「聖杯」。

  在這一個方向上,國內企業也在發力儲能領域。起點研究(SPIR)數據顯示,2016年,我國應用於儲能領域的鋰電池達3.79GWh,預計2017年全年儲能市場規模將達到6.19GWh,增速超過60%;至2020年,儲能市場規模將達到16.4GWh。

  天臣新能源已布局儲能領域,為大型智能儲能電站及後備電源提供ESS(Energy Storage System)解決方案,具有48V、300V、380V等各種型號後備電源產品。

  總的來說,目前國內市場在緊跟國際市場新能源產業鏈發展方面,已經湧現了一批優秀的企業。不止於此,更具前瞻性的企業,已經引領潮流!


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