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GM’s Electric Dream in China Suddenly Looks Underpowered The launch of a new Buick electric vehicle has been put on hold until a new battery supplier can be identifiedA Buick Velite 6 displayed at the Beijing auto show in April. PHOTO: WANG ZHAO/AGENCE FRANCE-PRESSE/GETTY IMAGES By  Trefor Moss Updated Aug. 29, 2018 10:22 a.m. ET SHANGHAI— General Motors Co.’s GM -0.85% plans to ramp up electric-vehicle production in China were set back after the auto maker determined the Chinese-made batteries it intended to use failed to meet its own performance and safety standards during testing. GM was set to enter production next month on its plug-in hybrid Buick Velite 6, a local variant of the Volt, with a pure-electric version due to follow early next year. That launch schedule has now been postponed, with internal tests showing the battery, supplied by A123 Systems, didn’t meet GM’s quality standards, according to a person familiar with the situation. EV batteries are complex components that can’t easily be switched, spelling lengthy delays in getting the Velite 6 into production. A GM spokeswoman declined to comment on the situation, but said the company still intends to launch 10 EVs in China by 2020. However, that target was announced over a year ago, long before the battery supply problem arose. “GM’s plan is to deliver 20 EVs globally by 2023,” the spokeswoman said. “In China, we are on track to introduce 10 new energy vehicles between 2016 and 2020. Given those two goals, all-electric vehicles like the Velite 6 battery electric vehicle are obviously our priority.” A123 Systems didn’t respond to a request seeking comment. The Livonia, Mich.-based company was bought out of bankruptcy by Chinese auto-parts giant Wanxiang Group Corp. in 2013, and it operates a battery plant in the eastern city of Hangzhou to supply the China market. Auto makers operating in China are scrambling to fulfill a Chinese government order requiring them to start building electric vehicles next year. Without a battery, GM is one of those in danger of missing Beijing’s target. China’s timetable is “difficult to achieve” for longtime manufacturers of gasoline cars being forced to make the rapid switch to electric, said Jing Yang, an associate director at Fitch Ratings. “The situation is different company by company,” she said, with some players well set to meet the target, and others floundering. Though seen as an EV market leader in the U.S., where it sells the Chevrolet Bolt and Volt electric cars, GM has had difficulty translating that advantage into success in China, the world’s biggest EV market. GM originally planned to use batteries from South Korea’s LG Chem Ltd. But in 2016, China mandated that auto makers use batteries from a list of approved suppliers, all of which are Chinese. China-owned Volvo Car Group, however, is an exception: It is allowed to use batteries using LG Chem-licensed technology in its locally built cars. Auto makers cite the exclusion of foreign batteries as an example of Chinese government protectionism that handicaps both foreign battery firms and the auto makers they supply, while handing advantages to local rivals. Those complaints are among the factors fueling the U.S. trade actions against China. China’s Ministry of Industry and Information Technology didn’t respond to a request for comment. The Chinese are on course to buy more than 1 million electric vehicles this year—nearly all of them built by local auto makers. Riding the boom are fast-growing Chinese battery suppliers such as BYD Co. and Contemporary Amperex Technology Co. , now among the world’s biggest lithium-ion battery companies. In its rush to develop battery technology, China risks shortcomings in quality and safety performance, said Thomas Barrera, president of LIB-X Consulting, a battery consultancy based in Long Beach, Calif. “There are concerns with the quality of Chinese-manufactured cells and batteries,” he said. “Chinese cells are very attractive because they’re inexpensive, but people may not realize that these cells may not have gone through the necessary qualification testing before going to market.” China’s EV policies have created a dilemma for foreign auto makers: They are obliged to build electric vehicles and use Chinese batteries, but they can’t compromise their global standards and use components in which they lack confidence—especially batteries, which have a history of catching fire. While most foreign auto makers have publicly expressed confidence in their ability to meet the EV quota, few have explained in detail how they will achieve a target requiring electric vehicles to make up roughly 3%-4% of their 2019 output. Some are making tangible progress. On Monday, Nissan Motor Co. started production of its first made-for-China electric car, while Volkswagen AG unveiled its first pure-electric car for China in April. Ford Motor Co. —which began developing electric vehicles later than rivals such as GM—has one plug-in hybrid model on the market in China, and plans to launch its first pure-electric car by the end of 2019. GM launched its first Chinese pure-electric car, the Baojun E100, last year. It has sold more than 22,000 units of the budget EV—which starts at about $6,900—despite only making it available in a handful of locations so far. However, GM, which builds roughly 4 million cars in China a year, would need to build about 100,000 E100s next year to meet the quota, assuming other models fail to come onstream. There is a backstop for auto makers that miss the 2019 target: The regulations allow them to transfer EV credits earned in 2020, and use them to make up any 2019 shortfall. If they are still noncompliant, auto makers will then be forced to buy EV credits from rivals through a credit-trading system, which the authorities have yet to articulate in detail. Auto makers bringing electric vehicles to market early can benefit from generous subsidies, but those are due to end in 2020. “Traditional auto makers will no doubt struggle to remix their portfolio to EVs,” said Bill Russo, the founder of Automobility, a Shanghai consultancy. And without subsidies, the struggle to build enough electric vehicles will soon become a battle to make the costly machines profitable, he said. https://www.seglenergy.com.tw/en/hot_287405.html GM’s Electric Dream in China Suddenly Looks Underpowered The launch of a new Buick electric vehicle has been put on hold until a new battery supplier can be identified 456f5da2b493c45c47107207e011f004.jpg A Buick Velite 6 displayed at the Beijing auto s 2021-03-10 2022-03-10
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第一財經日報發表於:2015/12/19 08:30電池比亞迪





不過,比亞迪的立場似乎有所鬆動。記者獲悉,即將上市的插電式混合動力SUV「宋」或成為比亞迪首款搭載三元鋰電池的車型。比亞迪一位內部人士近日接受記者採訪時談到,比亞迪新建深圳坑梓電池基地將依然是生產磷酸鐵鋰電池。不過,他也談到,未來技術總在不斷取代現有的技 術,比亞迪也有在關注三元材料。


作為全球最大動力電池生產基地,比亞迪深圳坑梓電池項目預計將於今年建成,將形成年產鐵電池8GWh(千兆瓦時),可為約25000台大巴或超 60萬台混合動力轎車提供電池。屆時比亞迪鐵電池整體產能將達到10GWh/年。與國內其他新能源車企相比,比亞迪最大的優越感就是能夠掌握新能源電池生 產的主動權,穩坐國內新能源車銷量冠軍寶座,與此密不可分。

2014年,全球電動汽車鋰離子電池產能井噴,產量高達7000MWh(兆瓦時),同比增長約54%。按EVSalesBlog對全球十大電池 生產商的排名,松下位居榜首,其在鋰離子電池市場份額占據了38%。日產和NEC合資電池公司AESC排第二名,LG化學排第三,而來自中國的比亞迪排第 四。儘管比亞迪去年電池產能與松下相差還很遠,但後來居上之勢不可小覷,憑藉電動客車和插電混動轎車秦的快速增長,比亞迪去年電池產能取得290%的驚人 增幅,市場份額也從2013年的3%上升到6%。

值得注意的是,不過,工信部今年8月14日公布的第72批節能與新能源汽車目錄,卻無意中泄露了比亞迪在電池路徑上的新行蹤。在此目錄中,比亞迪 BYD6460STHEV車型入選,多種信息顯示,這款車就是比亞迪將於今年第三季度上市的「宋」。根據公告技術參數表,該車的電動車儲能裝置種類為鎳鈷鋁酸鋰電池,由惠州比亞迪電池有限公司生產。這意味著比亞迪可能「變節」,不僅自主研發生產了三元鋰電池,並且已到應用階段。

國家工業和信息化部新能源汽車技術委員會一名相關人士近日接受記者採訪時談到,目前,國內在三元新材料研發以及應用上與國際依然有一段差距,國外在電池材料上發展更快。比亞迪此前依然堅守磷酸鐵鋰電池技術,一方面是因為現階段磷酸鐵鋰電池技術更穩定,另一方面是比亞迪要充分使用現有 的生產體系和產能,但這並不影響比亞迪新能源電池朝多元化路線發展,據他掌握的情況,比亞迪確實已在開發車用電池三元體系。




磷酸鐵鋰電池於1997年由美國德克薩斯州大學JohnGoodenough教授的研究小組最早發明。磷酸鐵鋰電池具有較安全、穩定性高、環保、 原料無毒、價格便宜等優勢,但也存在導電性差、密度較低等問題。隨著近些年來的研究,導電性的缺陷已經通過添加導電劑等方式解決,但是體積較大的問題還沒 有很好的解決方案。


根據《中國汽車計劃發展報告》(2014-2015),2013年,江淮、北汽股份、比亞迪等排名前五的純電動乘用車車型以及排名前五的客車車型均 裝配磷酸鐵鋰電池。從主流新能源乘用車車型的動力電池配套類型來看,電池組總成能量密度大多在60~100Wh/kg,較國外目前120Wh/kg的平 均水平還有差距。在這種情況下,國內新能源乘用車主流車型的單車電池容量在20~30kWh,續航里程為80~120km。不過,該報告也指出,近年來, 比亞迪通過生產技術改進和完善,產品性能及質量水平不斷提升。比亞迪從雙模電動車F3DM發展到秦,電池體質和重量降低了一半,技術提升非常顯著。


磷酸鐵鋰理論能量密度大概在160Wh/kg,比亞迪的單體電池目前能量密度已達到130Wh/kg,幾乎觸碰能量密度的天花板。一些研究工作者在 努力開發能量密度更高的磷酸鐵錳鋰材料新型動力鋰電池,但要突破並不容易。由於鋰酸鐵鋰的先天不足,越來越多磷酸鐵鋰生產廠家都開始關注三元材料的開發, 天津力神、中航鋰電等企業已開始批量的三元材料鋰電池的生產。




坐在國內新能源車頭把交椅的比亞迪,卻一直充當磷酸鐵鋰電池的「守護者」。比亞迪上述內部人士接受記者採訪時談到,比亞迪之所以堅 持磷酸鐵鋰電池,是因為磷、鐵、鋰等化學元素在大自然中常見,成本也相對低些,有利於新能源汽車量產,另一方面從環保角度出發,有考慮到電池是否便於回收。

「雖然磷酸鐵鋰電池密度小,但相對安全穩定,磷酸鐵鋰電池已有量產的產品,並已接受市場檢驗,而三元材料還在處於實驗室產品階段。」比亞迪上述內部 人士稱,車企採取哪一種電池,主要從安全、成本、是否存在污染以及是否便於回收等方面綜合考量,對比亞迪來說,磷酸鐵鋰電池現在依然是最好的選擇。

泰博英思(北京)信息諮詢有限公司汽車行業總監孫木子近日接受記者採訪時談到,新能源車動力電池還處於1.0階段,對未來方向難以判斷。雖然比亞迪暫時在國內新能源車領域遙遙領先,但畢竟這一市場體積還很小,比亞迪很有可能被其他新能源車企業趕超。現在,絕大多數新能源車企都是與電 池生產商結盟抱團,在資金投入、研發資源共享以及應用方面占有優勢,而比亞迪在新能源領域垂直的研發體系,有利有弊,一方面對新能源電池供應掌握自動權, 另一方面單靠自身力量有些單薄,發展速度或許沒那麼快。


新能源車企自身也不斷在動力電池上發力,加快技術以及產能規模的布局。特斯拉正在建Gigafactory超大型電池工廠,計劃在2020年將實現 50GWh的產能。大眾汽車CEO馬丁·文德恩日前也透露,該公司正在開發「超級電池」,可大幅提升電動車續航里程,當下接近在新電池技術上取得突破。有業內人士猜測,大眾未來將有可能轉向固態鋰電池,應用該技術很有可能將電動車續航里程提升至700公里。

面對眾多競爭對手圍攻,強調技術創新的比亞迪一點不鬆懈。比亞迪上述內部人士告訴記者,比亞迪在手機等產品中已在採取三元材料,至於在新能源車電池,未來也不排除在在現有的生產設備以及原料配方等方面做出調整的可能性。科技不斷在發生變化,比亞迪新能源車技術在動力、續航里程以及節能等方面加快 技術研發的步伐。比亞迪之所以一直堅持電子等產品代工業務,是因為在一定程度上可以從不同客戶吸取當下最先進的技術。

在動力電池路徑上,業內存在諸多分歧,而相對一致的觀點是,至今尚未有任何一種電池技術能真正滿足新能源汽車動力電池的技術要求。三元鋰電池是否能 取代磷酸鐵鋰電池,這依然存在諸多不確定性,況且答案未必二選一。也許在不久的將來,鋰電池將遭遇到強勁的對手,利用鎂、鋁、鈉等金屬替代鋰製成電池,空 氣電池或燃料電池等,都擁有很多鋰電池無法企及的優點,石墨烯電池也有可能脫穎而出。目前,多項新型電池技術已在實驗室中誕生,並朝產業化逼近,誰將主宰 沉浮還是未知數。


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