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何為三元鋰電池?4
SEGL ENERGY CO., LTD. No.76, Wuxun St., Anle Dist., Keelung City 204, Taiwan
GM’s Electric Dream in China Suddenly Looks Underpowered The launch of a new Buick electric vehicle has been put on hold until a new battery supplier can be identifiedA Buick Velite 6 displayed at the Beijing auto show in April. PHOTO: WANG ZHAO/AGENCE FRANCE-PRESSE/GETTY IMAGES By  Trefor Moss Updated Aug. 29, 2018 10:22 a.m. ET SHANGHAI— General Motors Co.’s GM -0.85% plans to ramp up electric-vehicle production in China were set back after the auto maker determined the Chinese-made batteries it intended to use failed to meet its own performance and safety standards during testing. GM was set to enter production next month on its plug-in hybrid Buick Velite 6, a local variant of the Volt, with a pure-electric version due to follow early next year. That launch schedule has now been postponed, with internal tests showing the battery, supplied by A123 Systems, didn’t meet GM’s quality standards, according to a person familiar with the situation. EV batteries are complex components that can’t easily be switched, spelling lengthy delays in getting the Velite 6 into production. A GM spokeswoman declined to comment on the situation, but said the company still intends to launch 10 EVs in China by 2020. However, that target was announced over a year ago, long before the battery supply problem arose. “GM’s plan is to deliver 20 EVs globally by 2023,” the spokeswoman said. “In China, we are on track to introduce 10 new energy vehicles between 2016 and 2020. Given those two goals, all-electric vehicles like the Velite 6 battery electric vehicle are obviously our priority.” A123 Systems didn’t respond to a request seeking comment. The Livonia, Mich.-based company was bought out of bankruptcy by Chinese auto-parts giant Wanxiang Group Corp. in 2013, and it operates a battery plant in the eastern city of Hangzhou to supply the China market. Auto makers operating in China are scrambling to fulfill a Chinese government order requiring them to start building electric vehicles next year. Without a battery, GM is one of those in danger of missing Beijing’s target. China’s timetable is “difficult to achieve” for longtime manufacturers of gasoline cars being forced to make the rapid switch to electric, said Jing Yang, an associate director at Fitch Ratings. “The situation is different company by company,” she said, with some players well set to meet the target, and others floundering. Though seen as an EV market leader in the U.S., where it sells the Chevrolet Bolt and Volt electric cars, GM has had difficulty translating that advantage into success in China, the world’s biggest EV market. GM originally planned to use batteries from South Korea’s LG Chem Ltd. But in 2016, China mandated that auto makers use batteries from a list of approved suppliers, all of which are Chinese. China-owned Volvo Car Group, however, is an exception: It is allowed to use batteries using LG Chem-licensed technology in its locally built cars. Auto makers cite the exclusion of foreign batteries as an example of Chinese government protectionism that handicaps both foreign battery firms and the auto makers they supply, while handing advantages to local rivals. Those complaints are among the factors fueling the U.S. trade actions against China. China’s Ministry of Industry and Information Technology didn’t respond to a request for comment. The Chinese are on course to buy more than 1 million electric vehicles this year—nearly all of them built by local auto makers. Riding the boom are fast-growing Chinese battery suppliers such as BYD Co. and Contemporary Amperex Technology Co. , now among the world’s biggest lithium-ion battery companies. In its rush to develop battery technology, China risks shortcomings in quality and safety performance, said Thomas Barrera, president of LIB-X Consulting, a battery consultancy based in Long Beach, Calif. “There are concerns with the quality of Chinese-manufactured cells and batteries,” he said. “Chinese cells are very attractive because they’re inexpensive, but people may not realize that these cells may not have gone through the necessary qualification testing before going to market.” China’s EV policies have created a dilemma for foreign auto makers: They are obliged to build electric vehicles and use Chinese batteries, but they can’t compromise their global standards and use components in which they lack confidence—especially batteries, which have a history of catching fire. While most foreign auto makers have publicly expressed confidence in their ability to meet the EV quota, few have explained in detail how they will achieve a target requiring electric vehicles to make up roughly 3%-4% of their 2019 output. Some are making tangible progress. On Monday, Nissan Motor Co. started production of its first made-for-China electric car, while Volkswagen AG unveiled its first pure-electric car for China in April. Ford Motor Co. —which began developing electric vehicles later than rivals such as GM—has one plug-in hybrid model on the market in China, and plans to launch its first pure-electric car by the end of 2019. GM launched its first Chinese pure-electric car, the Baojun E100, last year. It has sold more than 22,000 units of the budget EV—which starts at about $6,900—despite only making it available in a handful of locations so far. However, GM, which builds roughly 4 million cars in China a year, would need to build about 100,000 E100s next year to meet the quota, assuming other models fail to come onstream. There is a backstop for auto makers that miss the 2019 target: The regulations allow them to transfer EV credits earned in 2020, and use them to make up any 2019 shortfall. If they are still noncompliant, auto makers will then be forced to buy EV credits from rivals through a credit-trading system, which the authorities have yet to articulate in detail. Auto makers bringing electric vehicles to market early can benefit from generous subsidies, but those are due to end in 2020. “Traditional auto makers will no doubt struggle to remix their portfolio to EVs,” said Bill Russo, the founder of Automobility, a Shanghai consultancy. And without subsidies, the struggle to build enough electric vehicles will soon become a battle to make the costly machines profitable, he said. https://www.seglenergy.com.tw/en/hot_287405.html GM’s Electric Dream in China Suddenly Looks Underpowered The launch of a new Buick electric vehicle has been put on hold until a new battery supplier can be identified 456f5da2b493c45c47107207e011f004.jpg A Buick Velite 6 displayed at the Beijing auto s 2021-03-10 2022-03-10
SEGL ENERGY CO., LTD. No.76, Wuxun St., Anle Dist., Keelung City 204, Taiwan https://www.seglenergy.com.tw/en/hot_287405.html
SEGL ENERGY CO., LTD. No.76, Wuxun St., Anle Dist., Keelung City 204, Taiwan https://www.seglenergy.com.tw/en/hot_287405.html
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何為三元鋰電池?
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1、概念:
 
三元聚合物鋰電池是指正極材料使用鋰鎳鈷錳三元正極材料的鋰電池。
 
鋰離子電池的正極材料有很多種,主要有鈷酸鋰、錳酸鋰、鎳酸鋰、三元材料、磷酸鐵鋰等。目前三元材料的電芯代替了之前廣泛使用的鈷酸鋰電芯,在筆記型電腦電池領域廣泛使用,近幾年來三元鋰電池也開始應用於電動汽車。
 
2、優點:
 
相較於磷酸鐵鋰電池、錳酸鋰電池,三元聚合物鋰電池的容量高、壽命長、電瓶重量輕;在容量與安全性方面比較均衡,重複充電使用的性能優於正常鈷酸鋰。前期由於技術原因,標稱電壓只有3.5-3.6V,在使用範圍方面有所限制,但目前隨著材料的不斷改進和結構完善,電池的電壓已達到3.7V,在容量上也已達到或超過鈷酸鋰電池水準。
 
——特斯拉對三元鋰電池為何如此青睞:
 
特斯拉嘗試了市面上超過300種電池後,選擇三元鋰電池的理由是其能量密度更大且穩定性、一致性更好;可以有效降低電池系統的成本;尺寸小可控性和安全性都不斷提高。(來自於特斯拉電池技術總監KurtKelty)
 
3、劣勢:
 
造價較高;應用在電動汽車上時需要極為嚴格的電池管理系統,僅有特斯拉等國外少數車型大量使用。中國電動汽車鄰域還是以磷酸鐵鋰電池為主,不過少數電動汽車廠商也已經逐漸開始應用。
 
4、發展:
 
全球5大電芯品牌SANYO、PANASONIC、SONY、LG、SAMSUNG已推出三元材料的電芯(可見世界一流的三元鋰電池技術集中於日韓),相當部分的筆記型電腦電池線都用三元材料的電芯替換了之前的鈷酸鋰電芯,SANYO、SAMSUNG柱式電池方面更是全面停產鈷酸鋰電芯並轉向生產三元電芯,目前各地小型的高倍率動力電池大部分使用三元正極材料。
 
5、中國電動車使用三元鋰電池的例子:
 
——北汽的新能源車紳寶EV採用的三元鋰電池在結構上採用鋁塑軟包裝,容量較同等尺寸規格的鋼殼鋰電高10~15%、較鋁殼電池高5~10%;而重量卻比同等容量規格的鋼殼鋰電輕40%、較鋁殼電池輕20%;厚度可以做到1mm以下;電瓶可根據客戶需求增加或減少電芯厚度;遇撞擊最多只會發生氣鼓,可確保安全;內阻小,有效降低電池自耗電。
 
 
——奇瑞為eQ電動車準備了一套全新的電池組件。核心的電池組為三元鋰電池包,充電能量比過去提升30%,為提高電池組的性能還專門匹配了一套32位元的電池管理系統,大大增強整車的續航能力,最大續航里程可以達到200公里。
 
以點帶面不難理解,中國在三元鋰電池方面的研發甚至應用方面都取得了不錯的進展,但和國際一流的水準仍有明顯差距,畢竟2009年美國歐巴馬政府已經把三元鋰電池列入新能源補貼領域。但中國對新能源的發展是有迫切的現實需求,所以環境會加速新能源發展,三元鋰動力電池作為新能源的一個微小但重要的領域,也將迎來快速發展期。

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