Home
1
Hot News
2
Other
3
【2016年】リチウムイオン電池の世界シェア・市場規模・今後の動向 #14
SEGL ENERGY CO., LTD. No.76, Wuxun St., Anle Dist., Keelung City 204, Taiwan
GM’s Electric Dream in China Suddenly Looks Underpowered The launch of a new Buick electric vehicle has been put on hold until a new battery supplier can be identifiedA Buick Velite 6 displayed at the Beijing auto show in April. PHOTO: WANG ZHAO/AGENCE FRANCE-PRESSE/GETTY IMAGES By  Trefor Moss Updated Aug. 29, 2018 10:22 a.m. ET SHANGHAI— General Motors Co.’s GM -0.85% plans to ramp up electric-vehicle production in China were set back after the auto maker determined the Chinese-made batteries it intended to use failed to meet its own performance and safety standards during testing. GM was set to enter production next month on its plug-in hybrid Buick Velite 6, a local variant of the Volt, with a pure-electric version due to follow early next year. That launch schedule has now been postponed, with internal tests showing the battery, supplied by A123 Systems, didn’t meet GM’s quality standards, according to a person familiar with the situation. EV batteries are complex components that can’t easily be switched, spelling lengthy delays in getting the Velite 6 into production. A GM spokeswoman declined to comment on the situation, but said the company still intends to launch 10 EVs in China by 2020. However, that target was announced over a year ago, long before the battery supply problem arose. “GM’s plan is to deliver 20 EVs globally by 2023,” the spokeswoman said. “In China, we are on track to introduce 10 new energy vehicles between 2016 and 2020. Given those two goals, all-electric vehicles like the Velite 6 battery electric vehicle are obviously our priority.” A123 Systems didn’t respond to a request seeking comment. The Livonia, Mich.-based company was bought out of bankruptcy by Chinese auto-parts giant Wanxiang Group Corp. in 2013, and it operates a battery plant in the eastern city of Hangzhou to supply the China market. Auto makers operating in China are scrambling to fulfill a Chinese government order requiring them to start building electric vehicles next year. Without a battery, GM is one of those in danger of missing Beijing’s target. China’s timetable is “difficult to achieve” for longtime manufacturers of gasoline cars being forced to make the rapid switch to electric, said Jing Yang, an associate director at Fitch Ratings. “The situation is different company by company,” she said, with some players well set to meet the target, and others floundering. Though seen as an EV market leader in the U.S., where it sells the Chevrolet Bolt and Volt electric cars, GM has had difficulty translating that advantage into success in China, the world’s biggest EV market. GM originally planned to use batteries from South Korea’s LG Chem Ltd. But in 2016, China mandated that auto makers use batteries from a list of approved suppliers, all of which are Chinese. China-owned Volvo Car Group, however, is an exception: It is allowed to use batteries using LG Chem-licensed technology in its locally built cars. Auto makers cite the exclusion of foreign batteries as an example of Chinese government protectionism that handicaps both foreign battery firms and the auto makers they supply, while handing advantages to local rivals. Those complaints are among the factors fueling the U.S. trade actions against China. China’s Ministry of Industry and Information Technology didn’t respond to a request for comment. The Chinese are on course to buy more than 1 million electric vehicles this year—nearly all of them built by local auto makers. Riding the boom are fast-growing Chinese battery suppliers such as BYD Co. and Contemporary Amperex Technology Co. , now among the world’s biggest lithium-ion battery companies. In its rush to develop battery technology, China risks shortcomings in quality and safety performance, said Thomas Barrera, president of LIB-X Consulting, a battery consultancy based in Long Beach, Calif. “There are concerns with the quality of Chinese-manufactured cells and batteries,” he said. “Chinese cells are very attractive because they’re inexpensive, but people may not realize that these cells may not have gone through the necessary qualification testing before going to market.” China’s EV policies have created a dilemma for foreign auto makers: They are obliged to build electric vehicles and use Chinese batteries, but they can’t compromise their global standards and use components in which they lack confidence—especially batteries, which have a history of catching fire. While most foreign auto makers have publicly expressed confidence in their ability to meet the EV quota, few have explained in detail how they will achieve a target requiring electric vehicles to make up roughly 3%-4% of their 2019 output. Some are making tangible progress. On Monday, Nissan Motor Co. started production of its first made-for-China electric car, while Volkswagen AG unveiled its first pure-electric car for China in April. Ford Motor Co. —which began developing electric vehicles later than rivals such as GM—has one plug-in hybrid model on the market in China, and plans to launch its first pure-electric car by the end of 2019. GM launched its first Chinese pure-electric car, the Baojun E100, last year. It has sold more than 22,000 units of the budget EV—which starts at about $6,900—despite only making it available in a handful of locations so far. However, GM, which builds roughly 4 million cars in China a year, would need to build about 100,000 E100s next year to meet the quota, assuming other models fail to come onstream. There is a backstop for auto makers that miss the 2019 target: The regulations allow them to transfer EV credits earned in 2020, and use them to make up any 2019 shortfall. If they are still noncompliant, auto makers will then be forced to buy EV credits from rivals through a credit-trading system, which the authorities have yet to articulate in detail. Auto makers bringing electric vehicles to market early can benefit from generous subsidies, but those are due to end in 2020. “Traditional auto makers will no doubt struggle to remix their portfolio to EVs,” said Bill Russo, the founder of Automobility, a Shanghai consultancy. And without subsidies, the struggle to build enough electric vehicles will soon become a battle to make the costly machines profitable, he said. https://www.seglenergy.com.tw/en/hot_287405.html GM’s Electric Dream in China Suddenly Looks Underpowered The launch of a new Buick electric vehicle has been put on hold until a new battery supplier can be identified 456f5da2b493c45c47107207e011f004.jpg A Buick Velite 6 displayed at the Beijing auto s 2021-03-10 2022-03-10
SEGL ENERGY CO., LTD. No.76, Wuxun St., Anle Dist., Keelung City 204, Taiwan https://www.seglenergy.com.tw/en/hot_287405.html
SEGL ENERGY CO., LTD. No.76, Wuxun St., Anle Dist., Keelung City 204, Taiwan https://www.seglenergy.com.tw/en/hot_287405.html
https://schema.org/EventMovedOnline https://schema.org/OfflineEventAttendanceMode
2021-03-10 http://schema.org/InStock $NT 0 https://www.seglenergy.com.tw/en/hot_287405.html

Links:http://nomad-salaryman.com/post-5778

そもそもリチウムイオン電池(LiB)とは?

まずはリチウムイオン電池(LiB)とは何か?について簡単に。

リチウムイオン電池の名前の由来は、

リチウムを正極材に使うことが当時、革新的なアイディアだったために「Li – リチウム」の部分を強調してつけられた。英語表記はLitium ion batteryで、これの頭文字をとってLiBと省略されることが多い。

イオンの部分は当時、「マイナスイオン」という用語が電機メーカー業界で流行っていたため、適当につけられたものと推測(違ってたらごめんなさい)。

ちなみに世界で初めてリチウムイオン電池を発明したのはソニーだった。当時はソニーも「ウォークマン」「DVD」を発明したりと、革新的なメーカーであった。

こうしてリチウムイオン電池(LiB)は誕生した。

※当時「マイナスイオンで除菌!」「マイナスイオンの効果でリラックス!」とか、化学を冒涜しているとしか思えない用語をシャープが使い始めた。もしくは頭の悪い某広告代理店マンが使い始めた。

リチウムイオン電池の仕組み

つづいてリチウムイオン電池の仕組みをざっくりと。

リチウムイオン電池は写真に示すように5層から成り立ち、この51セットが、だし巻き卵のように何層にもなって1個のリチウムイオン電池ができる。

それぞれの層は翻訳すると以下のとおり。

  1. Cathode Material = 負極材(黒鉛)
  2. Anode Material = 正極材(リチウム)
  3. Separator = セパレータ(多孔質のフィルム)
  4. Electrolyte = 電解液
  5. Copper Foil = 銅箔
  6. Container = パッケージに使う材料(アルミ)
  7. Others = その他、バインダーなど

電池は基本、正極と負極の間でおきる電子のやりとりによって充電したり、放電したりする。これはリチウムイオン電池であっても同じ。他の層は、電子のやりとりを助けるための機能を持つ。自分で書いていて眠くなってきたのでこれ以上の技術的な説明は省略し、マーケットの話に移る。

リチウムイオン電池(LiB)の世界市場規模

世界市場規模 32650億円(2015年実績)

リチウムイオン電池(LiB)の世界市場規模は、2015年実績では推定・約3兆円ほどであった。使い方(用途)の内訳は、消費者むけ製品52%、車載用25%、産業用23%

消費者むけ製品には、スマホ・タブレット・パソコンなどの電気製品がメインとなる。車載用はEV(電気自動車)HV(ハイブリットカー)などに搭載される。ちなみに従来の普通の車はLiBではなく「鉛蓄電池」が積まれている。産業用には、航空・宇宙分野、太陽光発電の蓄電用などがある。

世界市場規模 85160億円(2024年予測)

なんと2024年の世界市場予測では8兆円を超える見通し。2015年からの平均成長率は15%/年程度を見込む。これはEV(電気自動車)の市場が順調に立ち上がることにくわえ、従来の車載用バッテリーが鉛蓄電池からリチウムイオン電池(LiB)に置き換わっていくと想定。

サイズごとの市場成長率は、以下の通りに想定。

  1. 小型LiB用途:年成長率 +8%
  2. 大型LiB用途:年成長率 +30% ————- ●市場全体の年成長率 +15%

※筆者の独自調査

先ほどと違う集計になるが、

小型リチウムイオン電池は今後も途上国での拡大により、年率8%の成長を見込む。スマホやタブレット、パソコン、デジカメに使用される電池のこと。

いっぽう、車載用や家庭用バッテリーとして使われる大型リチウムイオン電池は年率30%成長を見込む。これはテスラモーターズの電気自動車EVの拡大、中国共産党がEVの拡大策をとっていることが好材料。

電池はスマホ用などちまちました用途では爆発的にのびない。大型LiBが必要な車載用で伸びてこそビジネスが成り立つ。

Previous Back to List Next